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In the long term, land managers need to plan for a warmer climate on a time scale of decades, or even a century or more, to better reflect the life span of trees and forests. Studies supported by the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) are beginning to provide this type of guidance for managers. A central question of interest to researchers is whether there are tipping points, points of no returen beyond which landscapes will not revert to their historically documented conditions. Can managers' actions postpone or halt these drastic changes in forest conditions, or will they instead be forced to plan for a response to inevitable, abrupt changes in the landscape?