View Chapter 12 of the book, Exotic brome-grasses in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the western US: causes, consequences, and management implications.
Invasive annual grass research and management in arid and semiarid ecosystems of the Western United States (USA) have historically focused on reducing weed abundance as opposed to ecosystem restoration, which addresses the underlying processes responsible for their persistence. Given the current impact of invasive annual grasses and their continued spread in this region, we identified common characteristics responsible for persistence of the most problematic exotic annual Bromus. For heavily invaded areas, these include transient, yet typically large seed banks, altered soil resource availability and litter production, displacement of native species, and frequent disturbance from fire. To better address these common characteristics for future management, we illustrate how an adaptive management framework can reduce existing uncertainty associated with the restoration of arid and semiarid ecosystems.