Population biology of cheatgrass in forests: Effect of disturbance, grazing, and litter on seedling establishment and reproduction

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In the more open Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii forests, cheatgrass colonization may often occur in openings in the understory alone. Colonization in the more shady A. grandis and Thuja plicata forests is unlikely, however, unless the opening extends through both the understory and the overstory. As a result, cheatgrass is unlikely to increase in any of these forests unless the scale and incidence of disturbance increases substantially.

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